Provide a detailed summary of the following web content, including what type of content it is (e.g. news article, essay, technical report, blog post, product documentation, content marketing, etc). If the content looks like an error message, respond 'content unavailable'. If there is anything controversial please highlight the controversy. If there is something surprising, unique, or clever, please highlight that as well: Title: Kaktovik Numerals Site: en.wikipedia.org Inuit numeral system for a base-20 counting system The 20 digits of the Kaktovik system The Kaktovik numerals or Kaktovik Iñupiaq numerals [1] are a base-20 system of numerical digits created by Alaskan Iñupiat . They are visually iconic , with shapes that indicate the number being represented. The Iñupiaq language has a base-20 numeral system , as do the other Eskimo–Aleut languages of Alaska and Canada (and formerly Greenland). Arabic numerals , which were designed for a base-10 system, are inadequate for Iñupiaq and other Inuit languages. To remedy this problem, students in Kaktovik, Alaska , invented a base-20 numeral notation in 1994, which has spread among the Alaskan Iñupiat and has been considered for use in Canada. The image here shows the Kaktovik digits 0 to 19. Larger numbers are composed of these digits in a positional notation : Twenty is written as a one and a zero ( ), forty as a two and a zero ( ), four hundred as a one and two zeros ( ), eight hundred as a two and two zeros ( ), and so on. Iñupiaq , like other Inuit languages , has a base-20 counting system with a sub-base of 5 . That is, quantities are counted in scores (as in Danish , Welsh and in some French numbers such as quatre-vingts 'eighty'), with intermediate numerals for 5, 10, and 15. Thus 78 is identified as three score fifteen-three . [2] The Kaktovik digits graphically reflect the lexical structure of the Iñupiaq numbering system. For example, the number seven is called tallimat malġuk in Iñupiaq ('five-two'), and the Kaktovik digit for seven is a top stroke (five) connected to two bottom strokes (two): . Similarly, twelve and seventeen are called qulit malġuk ('ten-two') and akimiaq malġuk ('fifteen-two'), and the Kaktovik digits are respectively two and three top strokes (ten and fifteen) with two bottom strokes: , . [3] In the table are the decimal values of the Kaktovik digits up to three places to the left and to the right of the units' place. [3] Decimal values of Kaktovik numbers n n×20 3 n×20 2 n×20 1 n×20 0 n×20 −1 n×20 −2 n×20 −3 1 , 8,000 400 20 1 . 0.05 . 0.0025 . 0.000 125 2 , 16,000 800 40 2 . 0.1 . 0.005 . 0.000 25 3 , 24,000 1,200 60 3 . 0.15 . 0.0075 . 0.000 375 4 , 32,000 1,600 80 4 . 0.2 . 0.01 . 0.000 5 5 , 40,000 2,000 100 5 . 0.25 . 0.0125 . 0.000 625 6 , 48,000 2,400 120 6 . 0.3 . 0.015 . 0.000 75 7 , 56,000 2,800 140 7 . 0.35 . 0.0175 . 0.000 875 8 , 64,000 3,200 160 8 . 0.4 . 0.02 . 0.001 9 , 72,000 3,600 180 9 . 0.45 . 0.0225 . 0.001 125 10 , 80,000 4,000 200 10 . 0.5 . 0.025 . 0.001 25 11 , 88,000 4,400 220 11 . 0.55 . 0.0275 . 0.001 375 12 , 96,000 4,800 240 12 . 0.6 . 0.03 . 0.001 5 13 , 104,000 5,200 260 13 . 0.65 . 0.0325 . 0.001 625 14 , 112,000 5,600 280 14 . 0.7 . 0.035 . 0.001 75 15 , 120,000 6,000 300 15 . 0.75 . 0.0375 . 0.001 875 16 , 128,000 6,400 320 16 . 0.8 . 0.04 . 0.002 17 , 136,000 6,800 340 17 . 0.85 . 0.0425 . 0.002 125 18 , 144,000 7,200 360 18 . 0.9 . 0.045 . 0.002 25 19 , 152,000 7,600 380 19 . 0.95 . 0.0475 . 0.002 375 Map of Alaska highlighting North Slope Borough, part of Iñupiat Nunaat In the early 1990s, during a math enrichment activity at Harold Kaveolook school in Kaktovik, Alaska , [4] students noted that their language used a base 20 system and found that, when they tried to write numbers or do arithmetic with Arabic numerals, they did not have enough symbols to represent the Iñupiaq numbers. [5] The students first addressed this lack by creating ten extra symbols, but found these were difficult to remember. The middle school in the small town had nine students, so it was possible for the entire class to work together to create a base-20 notation. Their teacher, William Bartley, guided them. [5] After brainstorming, the students came up with several qualities that an ideal system would have: Visual simplicity: The symbols should be "easy to remember" Iconicity: There should be a "clear relationship between the symbols and their meanings" Efficiency: It should be "easy to write" the symbols, and they should be able to be "written quickly" without lifting the pencil from the paper Distinctiveness: They should "look very different from Arabic numerals," so there would not be any confusion between notation in the two systems Aesthetics: They should be pleasing to look at [5] In base-20 positional notation, the number twenty is written with the digit for 1 followed by the digit for 0. The Iñupiaq language does not have a word for zero, and the students decided that the Kaktovik digit 0 should look like crossed arms, meaning that nothing was being counted. [5] When the middle-school pupils began to teach their new system to younger students in the school, the younger students tended to squeeze the numbers down to fit inside the same-sized block. In this way, they created an iconic notation with the sub-base of 5 forming the upper part of the digit, and the remainder forming the lower part. This proved visually helpful in doing arithmetic. [5] Computation [ edit ] Iñupiaq abacus designed for use with the Kaktovik numerals The students built base-20 abacuses in the school workshop. [4] [5] These were initially intended to help the conversion from decimal to base-20 and vice versa, but the students found their design lent itself quite naturally to arithmetic in base-20. The upper section of their abacus had three beads in each column for the values of the sub-base of 5, and the lower section had four beads in each column for the remaining units. [5] Arithmetic [ edit ] Simple long division: 30,561 ÷ 61 = 501 (vigesimal 3,G81 ÷ 31 = 151). The divisor (black) goes into the first two digits of the dividend (purple) one time, for a one in the quotient (purple). It fits into the next two digits (red) once if rotated, so the next digit in the quotient (red) is a one rotated (a five). The last two digits are matched once for a final one in the quotient (blue). Long division with more chunking: 46,349,226 ÷ 2,826 = 16,401 (vigesimal E9D,D16 ÷ 716 = 2,101). The divisor goes into the first three digits of the dividend twice (traced in red and blue), for a two in the quotient (red and blue), into the next three once (green), does not fit into the next three digits (thus zero in the quotient), and fits into the remaining pink digits once. An advantage the students discovered of their new system was that arithmetic was easier than with the Arabic numerals. [5] Adding two digits together would look like their sum. For example, 2 + 2 = 4 is + = It was even easier for subtraction: one could simply look at the number and remove the appropriate number of strokes to get the answer. [5] For example, 4 − 1 = 3 is − = Another advantage came in doing long division . The visual aspects and the sub-base of five made long division with large dividends almost as easy as short division, as it didn't require writing in subtables for multiplying and subtracting the intermediate steps. [4] The students could keep track of the strokes of the intermediate steps with colored pencils in an elaborated system of chunking . [5] A simplified multiplication table can be made by first finding the products of each base digit, then the products of the bases and the sub-bases, and finally the product of each sub-base: × 1 2 3 4 × 1 2 3 4 × 5 10 15 1 5 5 2 10 10 3 15 15 4 These tables are functionally complete for multiplication operations using Kaktovik numerals, but for factors with both bases and sub-bases it is necessary to first disassociate them: 6 * 3 = 18 is * = ( * ) + ( * ) = In the above example the factor (6) is not found in the table, but its components, (1) and (5), are. The Kaktovik n