Please provide a short (approximately 100 word) summary of the following web Content, written in the voice of the original author. If there is anything controversial please highlight the controversy. If there is something surprising, unique, or clever, please highlight that as well. Content: Title: The James Webb Space Telescope will ripple through our moral universe Site: Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing wonder and awe, the more often and steadily we reflect upon them: the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me. – from Critique of Practical Reason (1788) by Immanuel Kant Enlightenment philosophers were vexed that their expanding empirical science of the external, material world collided with long-standing religious and moral traditions premised solely on internal, a priori knowledge. But for Immanuel Kant, the ‘sensible world’ of appearances emerged from cognitive faculties of the human mind, constitutive of observations gained through human experience. ‘We can cognize of things a priori only what we ourselves have put into them,’ he wrote. Kant analogised his reframing of metaphysics to Copernicus’s heliocentrism, in which the astronomer’s observations made sense only when he placed the Sun, rather than Earth, at the centre. ‘An object of the senses’ like a new planet observed from a telescope, wrote Kant, ‘conforms to the constitution of our faculty of intuition’, resolving the perceived discrepancy between the observable world and the mind’s contemplation of it. The Enlightenment’s radical political philosophy, shifting Europeans’ governance from aristocratic absolutism to freedom gained through reason, dovetailed with Kant’s philosophy of science. Observations of a band of stars that appeared to enring the sky led him to surmise that the solar system was shaped like a disc around the Sun. ‘Matter [is] … bound to certain laws, and when it is freely abandoned to those laws, it must necessarily bring forth beautiful combinations,’ he wrote in 1755. ‘There is a God just because nature even in chaos cannot proceed otherwise than regularly and according to order.’ A reasoned universe and a reasoned mind operated together. Kant’s ‘sensible world’ of the 18th century was Earth, the solar system and the stars in the sky. If Kant’s philosophy holds true, then anticipated astrophysical phenomena of the observable cosmos must continue to be integrated into humans’ self-emplacement in an ever-expanding internal universe as well. Increasingly sophisticated technologies of visual perception – from Galileo’s spyglass to ground- and then space-based telescopes – mediate our entwined expanding astrophysical and moral universes. Data from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) began returning images in July 2022, and is poised to deepen humans’ sensibility of the cosmos and ourselves. Astronomers expect that it will reveal novel astrophysical phenomena both one step beyond the familiar and the presently unimaginable. With its 6.5-metre gold-coated primary mirror and unprecedented sensitivity to long infrared wavelengths, the telescope’s deep field resolves distant star clusters in unparalleled detail. These images could help astronomers model the ‘cosmic spring’ that led to the formation of galaxies through gravitational mechanisms and life itself. The JWST could also pave the way to realise NASA scientists’ long-quested goal to detect extraterrestrial life, expanding beyond microbes on the surface of Mars or in the Venusian atmosphere, which would shore up a generalised theory of biology and evolution. The apprehension of biosignatures – indications of life in exoplanetary atmospheres – would demand a reordering, not only of how humans perceive the Universe, but of ourselves as living, if perhaps not lonely, beings within it. Thousands of galaxies flood this near-infrared image of the galaxy cluster SMACS 0723, captured by JWST, 12 July 2022 (full image). Courtesy NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI The cosmos as Kant understood it and cosmos as astronomers today understand it differ. The latter is more anticipated and sensible, but together they are just two points in a series of ruptures in humans’ perception of conjoined physical and philosophical spacetimes. These ruptures have unfolded chronologically and spatially in tandem. Each new scalar bound from the Earth – to the Moon, to the local solar system, to alien planets and galaxies, to the very fringes of the Universe – has prompted the reformation of our sense of being. To test how the discovery of nature orders the nature of discovery of ourselves, we time-hop to Renaissance Italy. G alileo Galilei improved on existing telescopes, and turned his spyglass to the heavens, writing of striking discoveries in his epochal treatise Sidereus Nuncius (1610), or ‘Starry Messenger’. Observing what a contemporary had dubbed the ‘strange spottednesse’ of the Moon, Galileo wrote that its surface was not ‘smooth, uniform, and precisely spherical’ but rather ‘uneven, rough, and full of cavities and prominences, being not unlike the surface of the Earth.’ As the art historian Samuel Y Edgerton, Jr describes it, Galileo, disciplining his eyes and hand through artistic practices flowering in Florence, rendered the Moon in both soft sepia watercolours and dramatic chiaroscuro engravings. Galileo’s Moon – an imperfect body rife with craggy geologies, pockmarked by ancient collisions – related familiar terrestrial to unfamiliar lunar features, and required a symbolic reordering. Because the Catholic Church’s Moon, upon which the Virgin Mary reigned, referenced the Immaculate Conception, Galileo’s depiction called into question the concept of the Moon – and therefore God’s universe – as perfect and pure. Galileo had corrupted Dante’s ‘eternal pearl’, and the new Moon’s representation came to enter religious frescoes – a tacit if wary acceptance of a morphing moral order. All images from Sidereus Nuncius (1610), or ‘Starry Messenger’, by Galileo Galilei Next, in careful logs over December 1609 and January 1610, Galileo reported curious pricks of light gambolling about the planet, ‘four planets never seen from the beginning of the world.’ Upon observing only two celestial bodies on the 11th night, Galileo ‘mov[ed] from doubt to astonishment’: he realised that the objects were not fixed, independent stars, but instead orbited at ‘marvellous speed around the star of Jupiter’. Galileo’s findings came to radically disrupt humans’ perception of their world We now know these objects as the moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Calisto, and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory is planning to send a probe to Europa in 2024 to investigate the possibility of life in its watery oceans. But four centuries ago, Galileo hastened an insuperable fracture of entwined astrophysical and moral beliefs. Further substantiating Copernicus’ model, Galileo fatally destabilised the prevailing geocentrism that the Church had held for centuries. This time, the Church met Galileo’s observations with explicit resistance, imperilling his carefully constructed position in nuanced Italian court politics. The historian of science Mario Biagioli describes how Galileo had, initially, ingeniously manipulated the tides of power in the Florentine court, leveraging his astronomical discoveries to fashion himself as a philosopher (not a mere mathematician of lower social grade). By dubbing the moons the ‘Medici planets’, he augmented that family’s supposedly God-given mythology. But in 1633, the Roman Court found Galileo ‘vehemently suspected of heresy, namely for having held and believed a doctrine which is false and contrary to the divine and Holy Scripture: that the Sun is the centre of the world and does not move from east to west, and the Earth moves and is not the centre of the world.’ Galileo was condemned to house arrest for the remainder of his life. Biagioli attributes the ‘fall of the favourite’ to fickle papal dynamics rather than merely to religious or scientific resistance. In Kant’s parlance, Galileo’s freshly ‘sensible’ moons could not be reconciled with short-sighted power struggles. Nevertheless, Galileo’s findings came to radically disrupt humans’ perception of their world. A half-century later, Sir Isaac Newton reworked Galileo’s findings in his monumental Principia (1687). ‘The motions of the planets, the comets, the Moon, and the sea,’ Newton wrote, ‘are deduced from these forces by propositions that are also mathematical.’ He decisively located gravity as an empirical description of all objects and a fundamental theory even beyond the observable world. The laws of motion governed not only humans’ relationship to objects in their world and their place on Earth, but alien bodies outside of immediate perceptibility. T ime-travel three centuries to the Harvard College Observatory in 1912, when the ‘computer’ Henrietta Swan Leavitt earned 30 cents an hour to determine stellar brightness, positions and movements over time. Although the observatory’s director Edward Pickering ‘chose his staff to work, not to think,’ Leavitt’s tedious labour afforded her intimate familiarity with the photographic plates. Partially deaf, her visual immersion let her track the stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (objects we now know to be dwarf galaxies, macerated and then regurgitated by the Milky Way). Leavitt formulated the relation between the length of a ‘Cepheid variable star’s’ brightening and dimming to precise time intervals, leading astronomers to calculate not only their distance from Earth but the scale of the galaxy. By the 1920s, astronomers debated if the Milky Way galaxy contained the whole of the cosmos or if spiral nebulae were their own separate ‘island universes’ – a distinction that would define the scope of the cosmos. Edwin Hubble used the world’s most powerful telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory near Los Angeles to study the Andromeda ‘spiral nebula’ in unprecedented resolution. In a now-famous image, Hubble crossed out the ‘N’ and replaced it with ‘VAR!’ as he realised that the ‘ n ova’ star was actually a ‘ v ariable’ star; calculating its distance from Earth, he realised that Andromeda was too far away to be incorporated into the Milky Way. We might read Hubble’s ‘!’ as a punctuation of surprise as he too ‘mov[ed] from doubt to astonishment’: his galaxy was surely just one of many that populated a vast cosmos. Edwin Hubble’s photographic plate of Andromeda, 1923. Courtesy of the Carnegie Institution for Science Leavitt lent Hubble the means to harness a sophisticated telescopic technology to amplify natural ‘sensibility’, but her foundational insight was hard-won. Pickering glossed over Leavitt’s contributions, publishing the results in his name; similarly, the Harvard astronomer Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin’s work on stellar atmospheres – later hailed as ‘the most brilliant PhD thesis ever written in astronomy’ – was diminished and then co-opted by her advisor Henry Russell. But the astronomical contributions of Leavitt, Payne-Gaposchkin and others eventually led to a progressive social perception: that women could research the cosmos on equal ground with their male colleagues. Hubble returned spectacular ‘baby pictures’ of the Eagle Nebula’s ‘Pillars of Creation’ NASA honoured Hubble decades later with the eponymous telescope that launched into outer space in 1990. Its grand mission was to research black holes, the solar system and, through its unparalleled sensitivity to visible wavelengths, the most distant galaxies in the Universe. But there was an issue: the telescope returned fuzzy images. After five missions to outer space, astronauts repaired the mirror, which NASA described as ‘fix[ing] the flaw much the same way a pair of glasses correct[s] the vision of a near-sighted person.’ In 1995, the now beloved and long-lived telescope returned spectacular ‘baby pictures’ of the Eagle Nebula’s ‘Pillars of Creation’ – billowing columns of gas and dust that are inchoate stars. The Pillars of Creation. Photo courtesy NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) The Hubble Deep Field layered 342 separate exposures over 10 days in 1995 to show thousands of young galaxies 12 billion lightyears away. Astronomers confirmed that matter is evenly distributed at very large scales, further evidence of an expanding and cooling post-Big Bang universe. Though scientists had suspected the prevalence of black holes in the Universe, they learned from Hubble images that supermassive black holes cluster at the centre of galaxies. Hubble ultra deep field, 3 June 2014. Courtesy NASA/ESA The visual metaphors